Hot Metal Ladle Construction


Ladle    Ladle Thermography   Ladle Schematic

Ladle Lining #1   Ladle Lining #2

Ladle Lining #3


Charge = adding materials to a blast furnace or open hearth

Refractory =  difficult to fuse, corrode, or draw out; especially:  capable of enduring high temperature.  Furnace/ladle brick to us common folk.

Tap = emptying a furnace of its molten contents

Si-Al = Silcon-Aluminum

Al2-O3 = Aluminum Oxide

Aluminium Oxide (Al2-O3), or alumina, is one of the most versatile of refractory ceramic oxides and finds use in a wide range of applications.  It is found in nature in emery, topaz, amethyst, and emerald, and as a component of the precious gemstones ruby and sapphire.  It is from the more abundant ores such as bauxite, cryolite and clays from which the material is commercially extracted and purified. Alumina has a very high melting temperature and alumina ceramics can maintain up to 90% of their strength above 1100C. They are thus employed in many refractory materials.

MgO-C = Magnesia-Carbon (graphite) 

MgO-C bricks are made from dead burnt magnesia (or electro fused magnesia), carbon material (mainly perfectly crystallized graphite) and resin binder, by proportioning and pressing.

In the pre continuous casting days, molten steel was formed in the open hearth furnace by the mixing and heating of various elements with molten iron.  The furnace would be tapped when the mix was ready.  Tapping a furnace involves transferring the motlten steel into a vessel for transport.  That vessel would be a pouring ladle, or a torpedo car.  After transport, the molten steel in the vessel would be poured into a form.  These forms are called billets, ingots and blooms.  A roughing mill would further reduce the formed steel into a  more workable product for use, ultimately, by a finishing mill.  An intermediate product would be slab.  The finished product takes various forms; plate, bar, rail and coil are but a few. 

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Created by GDY Wednesday, 12 February 1997 - 08:32:21 Hrs.

2008, G. David Yaros.  All rights reserved.